Anemia – Causes – Symptoms And Treatment
What is anemia?
Anemia is derived from the Greek word meaning “no blood” and is a condition of insufficient red blood cells or hemoglobin. As a result, the body lacks the ability to receive oxygen.
The three main types of anemia are:
- Excessive blood loss or acute blood loss is called bleeding.
- Excessive destruction of blood cells is called hemolysis.
- Poor red blood cell production is called hematopoietic cells.
In the production of red blood cells, if at least one of these substances is deficient, the body needs iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid. Can cause anemia
Anemia is not a disease in itself. It’s not just a lack of iron or vitamins. It can also be caused by chronic or hereditary or acquired diseases. It may also be a side effect of drugs, such as antibiotics or anticoagulants.
What are the symptoms of anemia?
Many people’s bleeding disorders gradually disappear, and the symptoms are quite vague.
- If a person is healthy, symptoms do not appear until the hemoglobin level has dropped below 10 g / dl.
- Shortness of breath, fatigue, dizziness and tachycardia.
- pale appearance
- If the anemia becomes severe, there will be angina (chest pain), headache, and leg pain (difficulty walking).
- With pronounced iron deficiency, visible symptoms appear on the tongue and throat and include:
- a burning sensation on the tongue.
- dry mouth and throat.
- sores in the corners of the mouth
- nails become brittle and spoon-shaped
- pica (an insatiable craving for a specific food, especially iron-deficient foods)
- brittle hair
- difficulty eating
Warning: In some rare cases, iron deficiency may cause permanent changes to the inner wall of the throat (soft inner wall). This condition is early cancer.
What is the cause of anemia?
The following are some common causes of anemia:
- Intense menstruation in women, puberty in girls.
- Iron deficient diet
- Internal bleeding, could be due to a tumor
- Diet poor in vitamin B12 or folic acid.
- Diseases like leukemia, hemorrhoids, stomach cancer.
- Infections such as malaria and sepsis, which reduce the longevity of red blood cells, such as malaria and sepsis, which reduce the longevity of red blood cells.
- Hormonal disorders such as hypothyroidism.
- Excessive alcohol consumption reduces the absorption of folic acid.
What are the different types of anemia?
- Iron deficiency anemia
- Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia
- Folic acid deficiency
Who is at high risk of developing anemia?
- Some people are at increased risk of anemia, including:
- menstruating women
- pregnant women
- Breastfeeding women
- Babies, especially if they are premature
- Boys, especially girls going through puberty
- People with stomach ulcers
- people with cancer
- People with chronic illnesses.
How is anemia treated?
Treatment definitely depends on the cause of the anemia.
Anemia can be resolved by improving diet. Or iron or folic acid supplements.
If the anemia is caused by internal bleeding, for example, wounds, medications or surgery may be necessary.
If the anemia is not treated, the symptoms will gradually worsen and the patient may feel very tired and weak. Later, there was chest pain or leg cramps.
Food sources rich in iron:
Food contains two types of iron: heme and non-heme.
Heme iron comes from hemoglobin and is found in foods of animal origin that contain hemoglobin, such as red meat, fish, egg yolks, seafood and poultry. Iron from these sources is easily absorbed by the intestine.
Iron in plant foods includes lentils, dried fruits, nuts and seeds, figs, dates, dried apricots, beets, raisins, green leafy vegetables such as spinach, and whole grains. The chemical structure of fortified grains and bread, beans and peas is called hemp iron. Other sources of iron include leafy green vegetables, tofu, chickpeas and strawberries.
Measures to prevent anemia:
- Eat a healthy and balanced diet. And make sure that your diet contains good iron, folic acid and vitamin B12.
- Reduce alcohol consumption
- If you are a vegan, take vitamin B12 supplements to avoid malnutrition.
- Avoid coffee, tea and other caffeinated beverages as they will reduce iron absorption.
- Use an iron pan to cook food to increase the iron content of the food.
- Eat more fresh salads to help prevent anemia. Especially if you put a lot of beets in it.
- Honey increases the level of hemoglobin in the blood. Because it is rich in iron, copper and manganese.
- Vitamin C intake is very important for iron absorption. People with anemia should eat two oranges a day.
- Avoid milk. This can cause intestinal bleeding.